Basic academic studies (Bachelor) are organized at universities (more precisely, faculties or academies of arts that are member of universities) and colleges of applied studies and can last either three or four years (180 or 240 ECTS). Basic applied studies (Bachelor appl.) last three years (180 ECTS) and are organized either at universities or colleges of applied sciences. Upon completion of this level of studies the student receives a title Bachelor (or in case of applied studies Bachelor appl.). Bachelor study programme can include final thesis which the student has to defend at the end of the studies, but this depends on the curriculum of the specific study programme.